Hospital | Departments

Specialist diagnostic and treatment services

These services, and consequently their relative rooms and systems, each for their own individual reasons, require professional input regarding the flow, exchange and recirculation of air. The activities performed here place workers and patients in direct contact with various types of potential contaminants (chemicals, bacteria, radioactive agents).

Nuclear medicine

The diagnostics department must have more than one separate entrance, one for patients (outpatients and inpatients) and one for staff and goods.

Special attention must be paid to systems along routes taken by staff and goods and at entrances to avoid contamination: it is essential that appropriate access filters (airlocks) and decontamination spaces in case of “incidents” are provided.

Raccomanded

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Nuclear medicine (administration) N 15-20 Pa ≥ 10 ISO 7 (AT REST) Forbidden 40-55% 20°C ± 2°C WINTER
24°C ± 2°C SUMMER
E10 H13 + Activated carbon T/U
Antiblastic Chemotherapy Handling Units N 15-20 Pa ≥ 10 ISO 5 (OPERATIONAL) Forbidden 40-55% 20°C ± 2°C WINTER
24°C ± 2°C SUMMER
H14 under unidirectional flow
≥ E12 other zones
H13 + Activated carbon T/U

 

Diagnostic imaging

This sector encompasses all diagnostic functions falling under traditional radiology: Radiology, Senology, CT, Magnetic Resonance, BMD, Ultrasound, etc., in addition to nuclear medicine and endoscopy, which are handled separately because of their specific spatial and functional characteristics.

Recommended

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Diagnostic Radiology P 15-20 Pa ≥ 6 ISO 7 (AT REST) 40-55% 24°C ± 2°C E10 Not necessary YES T
Magnetic Resonance P 20 Pa ≥ 10 ISO 7 (AT REST) 40-55% 24°C ± 2°C E10 Not necessary YES T

Radiotherapy

The radiotherapy department performs diagnostic, treatment and follow-up activities.

 

Recommended

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Nuclear medicine (administration) N 15-20 Pa ≥ 10 ISO 7 (AT REST) Forbidden 40-55% 20°C ± 2°C WINTER
24°C ± 2°C SUMMER
E10 H13 + Activated carbon T/U

Pre-admission

The pre-admissions department should be located near to the main lobby, and be directly accessible from the public area. It is used for performing a series of preparatory tests and procedures prior to surgery, for inpatients and outpatients (pre-hospitalisation).

Recommended

Endoscopy

The endoscopy department will have two patient entrances: one for outpatients and the other for inpatients (long-stay and day patients, and patients sent from A&E). There will also be another entrance for staff and goods.

Recommended solutions

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Outpatient endoscopy – diagnostic endoscopy N 15-20 Pa 45 ISO 7 (OPERATIONAL) Forbidden 40-55% 20°C WINTER
24°C SUMMER
Not necessary H13 T
Bronchoscopy N 20 Pa ≥ 45 ISO 7 (OPERATIONAL) Necessary 40-55% 20°C WINTER
24°C SUMMER
Not necessary H13 T

Blood test centre

The blood test centre is located in a connected area near to the entrance, directly accessible from outside. It is directly connected with the laboratories so samples can be sent there.

 

Recommended

Blood transfusion centre

Blood transfusion centres include the donation area and the connected laboratories/blood banks (test areas, registration, handling, reprocessing and storage of blood and blood products).Preferably, it will be located near to the hospital’s main entrance. This department requires a post-donation canteen area.

From an operational point of view, blood donor centres have several different types of rooms: laboratories, waiting rooms, blood banks. Here are the specific details for each type:

Minimum requirement

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Haemodynamics P 15-20 Pa ≥ 15 ISO 5 (AT REST) Necessary See UNI 11425 See UNI 11425 SI VEDA UNI 11425 Not necessary YES U

Rehabilitation

The rehabilitation and physiotherapy department is used for pre-surgery preparation and post-acute rehabilitation for inpatients and outpatients, pre and post-admissions, and those suffering from disabilities caused by orthopaedic, neurological, pneumological, urogynaecological, cardiological and gastroenterological diseases.

Recommended

Outpatient clinics

Outpatient clinics provide sophisticated and specialist diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative services related to the various medical and surgical disciplines, that do not require hospital admission.

Recommended

Clinical analysis laboratories

This includes clinical chemistry, haematology, microbiology, histology and cytology, and all other methods of analysing biological samples for routine, advanced or experimental use or for research purposes.

They may also contain specialist areas: level two labs, which have more stringent protective and isolation requirements.

Recommended

Anatomical pathology laboratories

Anatomical pathology is a medical speciality that is concerned with studying disease through the macroscopic examination of tissues and cells.

Recommended

Inpatient wards

SagiCofim views hospitals as “controlled contaminated buildings” and has worked to accommodate the needs of the varied environments of the “hospital world” for many years, from critical and high-risk units to more standard, communal areas.

SagiCofim views hospitals as “controlled contaminated buildings” and has worked to accommodate the needs of the varied environments of the “hospital world” for many years, from critical and high-risk units to more standard, communal areas.
Choosing a specialist, competent partner to take on this role is essential from the outset. Even from the early stages of designing the buildings and different zones, the client and the project manager must work together to define their objectives and to make the best technical choices in order to achieve them, ensuring air quality – making it a close ally rather than one’s worst enemy – good isolation of the different rooms, maintenance of structural requirements and a proper analysis of the installations’ life cycle.

Intensive care units

Intensive care units provide critical patients with intensive care and treatment to support their vital functions, requiring the constant monitoring and immediate intervention of staff following recent major surgery or critical cardiological and respiratory conditions. The same requirements also apply to special care units for comatose patients.

Intensive care units have their own dedicated areas and are supported by specialist teams and equipment for monitoring, treating and supporting the normal bodily functions of patients in a critical condition.

Recommended

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Intensive Care – Resuscitation – Coma Unit P 15-20 Pa ≥ 10 ISO 6 (AT REST) Recommended 40-55% 24°C WINTER/SUMMER H13 Not necessary YES U
NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) P 15-20 Pa ≥ 10 ISO 6 (AT REST) 22°C WINTER
26°C SUMMER
H13 Not necessary YES T/U

Standard wards

The optimum layout for standard wards is based on individual cubicles or rooms with space for attendants, equipped with all necessary amenities, and which can also be used as double rooms.

Every inpatient ward will have its own personnel support services.

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Inpatient Wards P 15-20 Pa ≥ 30 ISO 8 (AT REST) Not necessary, forbidden in centralised systems. 40-55% 22°C ± 2°C WINTER
26°C ± 2°C SUMMER
Not necessary Not necessary YES T

Birthing unit

A proper “birthing culture” understands that childbirth is an intimate family moment, underpinned by the safety offered by a hospital.

Birthing units are made up of a combination of the labour ward, maternity ward and crèche. There is one entrance for patients and visitors that is separate from the route taken by other hospital patients and visitors; the initial waiting area leads through to the visitors-reception area, the delivery unit – through a filter – as well as the maternity ward and crèche.

Birthing unit

The birthing unit is for neonatal care and admissions which must maintain a micro-climate and air quality conditions in line with the specific type of hospitalisation required.

Recommended

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Neonatal Unit P 15-20 Pa ≥ 6 ISO 6 (AT REST) 40-55% 22°C WINTER
26°C SUMMER
E10 Not necessary YES T

Delivery room / caesarean surgery

These are contamination-controlled environments for assisted deliveries and/or deliveries by caesarean section.

 

Recommended

Labour / delivery room

Spaces for labouring and possibly for natural deliveries.

Recommended

Accident and emergency

Accident and Emergency is a hospital department specifically for emergencies and with room for brief periods of observation. It is here that all accidents and emergencies are first treated (trauma, heart attacks, etc.) and are therefore attended on an “emergency admission” basis.

Minor injuries unit / Triage / A&E

The role of the minor injuries unit has been absorbed into the wider Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department, although some smaller hospitals still have minor injuries units that do not have the full range of assistance provided by a full A&E department but that are able to provide emergency care.

Triage must be organised so that incoming cases can be immediately sorted based on the accident or emergency, allocating an order of priority based on the seriousness of the case. Corridors that connect directly and easily and facilitate the transportation of patients to intensive care, operating blocks and other diagnostic departments are essential.

Recommended

Minimum requirements

AMBIENT PRESSURE COMPARED TO NEARBY/EXTERNAL ROOMS FRESH AIR RENEWAL ISO ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATION 14644-1 ROOM RECIRCULATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE TERMINAL FILTRATION EXHAUST FILTRATION TECHNICAL CAVITY WALLS INSIDE DEPRESSURISED ENVIRONMENTS AIR FLOW
Minor Injuries Unit / Triage / A&E N 15-20 Pa
(Triage)
≥ 6
≥ 10 in triage
UNCLASSIFIED Forbidden 40-55% 22°C ± 2°C WINTER
26°C ± 2°C SUMMER
Not necessary Not necessary T
Emergency Operating Room P ≥ 15 ISO 5 (OPERATIONAL) Necessary See
UNI 11425
See
UNI 11425
See
UNI 11425
Not necessary YES U

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